Annotated Bibliography: Emotional Abuse Of Women By Their Intimate Partners

Publication Date: 
2000
Resource Origin: 
Springtide

1. Alexander, R. (1993). Wife-Battering: An Australian perspective. Journal of Family Violence, 8(3): 229-251.

Study examines the leading definition of wife battering and questions the emphasis on physical rather than nonphysical abuse. Theories which concentrate either specifically on the profiles of the victims and perpetrators or on the family unit or external forces are questioned. Social class is explored to open up dialogue about mythologies. Issues of why women stay in abusive relationships and statistics are cited from six separate surveys carried out in Australia. Definitions or forms of abuse include the emotional and verbal. Recommended for professionals and academics.

2. Anderson, S. M., Boulette, T.R., and Schwartz, A.H. (1991). Psychological maltreatment of spouses. In R.T. Ammerman & M Hersen, (Eds.) Case Studies in Family Violence, New York: Plenum Press. p. 293-327.

Chapter provides several analyses of various aspects of psychological abuse in physically abusive relationships. Definitions and descriptions of psychological abuse are included as well as their impact on abused women. Medical and legal issues are examined as to their efficacy in meeting the needs of the victims and addressing the macro issues of woman abuse. A profile of an abused woman in therapy assists in creating a more comprehensive overview of this phenomenon. Social and family issues such as traumatic bonding, psychological entrapment, social isolation, economic stress, power imbalances,alcohol abuse and intergenerational transmission are also examined. Profiles of battering males and battered females are discussed as well as treatment options. Recommended for general public, professionals and academics.

3. Anonymous, no year documented. Breaking free: One woman's struggle for a life without violence. Common Ground, 13(3): 21-22.

Article is a testimonial about abuse by a woman living in a shelter and returning to her partner to find an unchanged situation. She states that emotional abuse does not leave physical scars but scars were left on her heart. She names emotional abuse, financial abuse and destruction of property and pets as leaving one scarred. She states her reasons for leaving and for returning and the impact of the abuse on her self esteem. Recommended for general public.

4. Anonymous. (1995). The exchange. A Friend Indeed, 12(6): p. 5.

Testimonial letter from an emotionally abused woman who stated that she needed to speak to others about recognizing abuse in its covert forms. Boundary diffusion,controlling behaviours by parents, bosses and partner are examined. Somatic illnesses are discovered by listening to one's body and responding with self-care and discussing determining causes. Recommended for general public.

 5. Arias, I., Lyons, C.M. and Street, A.E. (1997). Individual and marital consequences of victimization: Moderating effects of relationship efficacy and spouse support.Journal of Family Violence, 12(2): 193-210.

Article discusses and measures the relationship between spousal emotional support, relationship efficacy and depression of women in battering relationships where verbal abuse is present. Impacts of high spousal emotional support in these relationships is examined as a determinant of the abused woman offering benign explanations for her partner's negative actions and her propensity to depress. Samples include sixty-six married women and several measures are used such as the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) (Straus, 1979), Relationship Attribution Measures (RAM) (Fincham and Bradbury,1992), Relationship Efficacy Measure (REM) (Fincham and Bradbury, 1989) and others. Recommended for professionals and academics.

6. Attala, J. M., Hudson, W.W. and McSweeney, M. (1994). A partial validation of two short form partner abuse scales. Women and Health, 21(2/3): 125-130.

Article focuses on descriptions of scales measuring emotional abuse. Scales attempt to overcome victims minimizing of their abuse and their understanding. Scales good for measuring levels of violence as well as progress in treatment. Instruments to measure type and severity of abuse are also included. Recommended for professionals and academics.

7. Author Unknown, (1995). Harm's way: Redefining violence and abuse against persons with disabilities. Entourage, 9(1): 3-5.

Article outlines issues that create vulnerability for people with disabilities including inadequacies of the Canadian Charter of Rights. Poverty limits the ability of those persons with disabilities to buy their way out of abusive situations. Poorly trained and overworked staff in group homes and institutions exist and few safeguards to protect this vulnerable population are part of the policy of institutions. Stereotypes prevail which put this population at risk. Violation of trust, sexual and emotional exploitation abound. Women feel that only the extreme forms of abuse will elicit results so they feel they must keep silent or be further abused. Recommended for general public and professionals.

8. Barling, J., O'Leary, K.D., Jouriles, E.N., Vivian, D. and MacEwan, K.E. (1987). Factor similarity of the conflict tactics scales across samples, spouses, and sites: Issues and implications. Journal of Family Violence, 2(1): 37-54.

Article addresses issues of the inadequacy of definitions as evidenced by the variation in prevalence estimations of marital aggression. Straus's Conflict Tactic Scale (1979), which is widely used, was examined and two studies conducted. One hundred and eighty-seven couples seeking marital counselling and three hundred and ninety-eight nonclinic couples in new marriages were used as samples. Such variables as gender, social status, geographic locations, clinic and nonclinic samples and time were included in the factor structure for consistency. Recommended for academics.

 9. Beaulieu, M. (1992). Intervention for Victimized Elderly People. Quebec:Association quebecoise Plaidoyer-Victims.

Booklet outlines situation of elderly in our society, their problems and limitations.Areas explored included fear of crime, criminal victimization and abuse or ill treatment. Consequences of various forms of abuse include deterioration of elders' health, physical, psychological and social vulnerability. When the elderly woman lives with her husband, he is the main abuser of the woman and there is a strong likelihood that the abuse has been going on for a very long time. Prevention, detection, approaches and interventions are discussed as well as provision for elders from different cultural groups. Recommended for general public and professionals.

10. Burstow, B. (1992). Radical Feminist Therapy: Working In The Context of Violence. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA.

Chapter 8 and 9 are dedicated to the subjects of opposite and same sex partner abuse,both physical and emotional. Also helpful are examples of assessments and treatments from a feminist perspective. Lists of examples of abuse are offered to add to one's insight of the many dimensions of emotional abuse. Lesbians who abuse are also profiled along with a psychological perspective of homophobia and patriarchy.Recommended for general public, professionals and academics.

11. Campbell, J.C. and Lewandowski, L.A. (1997). Mental and physical health effects of intimatepartnerviolence on women and children. Anger , AggressionandViolence, 20(2): p. 353-373.

Article focuses on the need for educational programs for health care professionals. Authors state that emotional abuse is almost always part of a physically abusive relationship and has serious psychological consequences. The recognition of abuse by those working in both physical and mental health fields is key to effective service delivery. Article also discussed child witnessing of physical and emotional abuse and its impact on children. Recommended for professionals and academics.

12. Caplan, P. (1985). The Myth of Women's Masochism. New American Library, New York.

This book dispels the myths that the powerless bring on their own misery. The recognition in recent years of women's secondary status in society and how that has impacted on theoretical perspectives is explored. Theories of women as masochistic are now seen as causing serious harm to healing, empowerment strategies and the movement towards women living free from violence in its many forms. Recommended for general public, professionals and academics.

13. Chang, V.N. (1996). I Just Lost Myself: Psychological Abuse of Women In Marriage. Westport, Connecticut, Praeger Publishers.

The book focuses on psychological abuse found in physically abusive relationships and compares it to strictly psychological abuse. Age, ethnicity, class, race, religion and education of the women are examined but basic characteristics are similar. The book uses an interpretative and phenomenological method. This method is a process used to make sense and give meaning to reality within specific social contexts and life narratives. Shows intersections of the limitations of gender hierarchies and social structure. The strength of individual agency is also discussed. Definitions of abuse, some statistics as well as treatment models are provided. Recommended for professionals and academics.

14. Chester, B., Robin, R.W., Koss, M.P., Lopez, J. and Goldman, D. (1994). Grandmother dishonored: Violence against women by male partners in American Indian communities.Violence and Victims, 9(3): 249-258.

This article looks at methodological inadequacies in the gathering of information regarding minority populations, particularly Native Americans. Most of the literature,the author states, is anecdotal and biased. Issues of homogeneous versus heterogeneous approaches to groups is highlighted, as Native Americans are a heterogeneous population. Issue of cumulative trauma and woman abuse are explored. Recommended for academics.

15. Community Abuse Program of Rural Ontario (C.A.P.R.O.) And Education Wife Assault.(1997). Information and Resources for Abused Women In Northumberland,South Hastings and Prince Edward Counties. Toronto: Education Wife Assault.

Information in this pamphlet has been put together by a number of women in these counties. The information includes definitions of abuse, resources, women's unique circumstances in a rural environment. Financial concerns for farm women are addressed as well as housing, how to leave, issues of danger and support services. Recommended for general public and professionals.

16. Cusitar, L. (1994). Strengthening the Links, Stopping the Violence: A Guide to the Issue of Violence Against Women with Disabilities. Toronto: DisAbled Women's Network (DAWN).

Report outlines how the community has responded to the violence experienced by women with disabilities. Definitions are included as well as how various sectors respond, i.e: counselling services, health services, police and legal services and institutional services. It provides suggestions on how responses can be improved and what has changed positively so far. Recommended for professionals.

17. Davies, J., Lyon, D. and Monti-Catania, D. (1998). Safety Planning With Battered Women:

Complex Lives/Difficult Choices. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications.

Descriptions of psychological abuse outcomes in physical abuse and in coercive control relationships are outlined. These include fear, lack of control over events, depression, inability to predict abusers' actions and verbal tyranny, stress, anxiety, shame, guilt, low self esteem, and other symptoms. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is outlined and parallels are drawn between PTSD and Battered Woman Syndrome. Recommended for professionals.

18. DeKeseredy, W.S. (1995). Enhancing the quality of survey data on woman abuse. Violence Against Women, 1(2): 158-173.Survey data is applied to dating relationships in college and university settings and victimization of women. Article describes methods to minimize shortcomings in in the methodologies of surveys so reliable data on the extent, patterns and sources of the abuse can be determined.Recommended for academics.

19. Dutton, D.G., Starzomski, A. and Ryan, L. (1996). Antecedents of abusive personality and abusive behaviour in wife assaulters. Journal of Family Violence, 11(2): 113-132.

Article examines the concept of an abuse cycle which consists of the tension building stage, anger stage and battering stage. Emotional abuse is most obvious in the anger stage when devaluing of significant other takes place. Results of study produced a profile of abusive personality constellations and authors were able to classify men into high or low abuse groups based on the reports of the abused women in the study. If the female partner exhibits independent behaviours, this may be viewed by the abuser as possible object loss and can generate rage leading to abuse. Issues relating to the abuser experiencing and witnessing abuse during childhood are also examined. Recommended for professionals and academics.

20. Dutton, D.G. (1995). A scale for measuring propensity for abusiveness. Journal of Family Violence, 10(2): 203-221.

This article focuses on scales to measure the likelihood that a man could abuse his partner. A control group is used and measures focus on control, anxiety, tensions,fear of women, past experiences of corporal punishment, skills of parents to cope and more. A new scale is developed from the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (Tolman, 1988) and that new scale correlates with physical abuse. Article is recommended for academics.

21. Elliot, P. (1996). Shattering Illusions: Same Sex Domestic Violence. The Hawthorne Press.St. Paul, MN.

In the introduction of this book, text explains the extent of same sex physical abuse as compared to heterosexual abuse in statistical terms. Article goes on to explain issues of power and control, rather than gender as the reason for the abuse. Homophobia, a tool of sexism, creates the environment where abuse can thrive and allows the perpetrator to get away with it. The abuse includes emotional, sexual and verbal dimensions. The impact of non-physical abuse is outlined here as well. Threats of 'outing' are seen as emotionally abusive and can isolate a victim even further than their heterosexually abused counterpart. Shifting power bases from one partner to the other are explained as a unique aspect of same-sex relationships. Recommended for general public, professionals and academics.

22. Eastcott, D.R. (1992). We Are Those Women:A Training Manual for Working with Women with Disabilities in Shelters and Sexual Assault Centres. DisAbled Women's Network, Toronto, Ontario

The manual outlines issues of violence against women with disabilities and includes definitions, offenders, barriers to disclosure as well as defining access problems and case stories. In addition, it provides guidelines to sensitive practices and services. Resources regarding supportive organizations and written material are included. Recommended for professionals.

23. Engel, B. (1993). Encouragements for Emotionally Abused Women. New York, Fawcett

This book offers quotes from a variety of authors, philosophers and celebrities that are designed to encourage women on a daily basis to move away from abuse and towards fulfilment. Each quote is followed by statements by the author that offer insight into one's feeling and behaviours. Recommended for general public.

24. Evans, P. (1993). Verbal Abuse Survivors Speak Out. Holbrook, Mass: Adams Media Corporation.

A comprehensive look at verbal abuse survivors' experiences of identifying abuse and its intent of power and control. There is also information regarding the disintegration of personal integrity (wholeness) through abusive blame, anger, judgements, constant criticism,  withholding and denial. Healing and recovery are examined through discussion of beginning with oneself, paying attention to the inner child, growth and environmental contexts for healing such as counselling, support groups and self care. Recommended for general public and professionals.

25. Evans, P. (1992). The Verbally Abusive Relationship: How to Recognize It and How to Respond. Holbrook, Mass: Adams Media Corporation.

The purpose of this book is to assist abused women to recognize verbal abuse for what it is and to begin to request change. Through the evaluation of one's experience of affection/rejection; hope/disappointment; happiness/sadness; security and fear, the author helps the reader deconstruct processes, obstacles and indicators of verbal abuse. There are a variety of descriptions of verbal abuse and suggestions to help with recovery. Counselling is advised. Recommended for general public and professionals.

26. Follingstad, D.R., Rutledge, L.L., Berg, B.J., Hause, E.S. and Polek, D.S. (1990). The role of emotional abuse in physically abusive relationships. Journal of Family Violence, 5(2): 107-120.

Study of two hundred and thirty-four women revealed three types of emotional abuse that appeared to be predictions of physical abuse. These included threats of abuse, restrictions of the woman and damage to woman's property. Six major types of abuse are explored and include threats of abuse, ridicule, jealousy, threats to change marriage,restrictions and damage to property. Authors examined long and short term relationships as well as women's perception of justifiable abuse as a factor to determine the impact of emotional abuse. The analysis also questions if emotional abuse is related to the frequency and severity of physical abuse, but further study appears necessary.Recommended for professionals and academics.

27. Fraser, K. (1992). Trading abuse for poverty. Canadian Women Studies, 12(4): 41-42.

Article focuses on poverty and income status regarding use of shelters. The article illustrates that middle income women who use shelters are generally coming out of abusive relationships where financial abuse was also present and the woman had no access to family monies and were also lacking in supports due to social isolation imposed by the abuser. Recommended for general public and professionals.

28. Hamilton, B. and Coates, J. (1993). Perceived helpfulness and use of professional services by abused women. Journal of Family Violence, 8(4): 313-324.

This article presents information on the frequency of contact and the perceived helpfulness of different professions and types of responses that proved to be useful for abused women in New Brunswick. The results are highlighted by a study of two hundred and seventy women who used a variety of agencies and professionals. Frequency of service use and helpfulness of service are discussed. Types of responses that are useful and had value are presented. The professionals that were found to be most helpful by women who were emotionally and/or physically abused and sexually assaulted were transition house/crisis line workers and social workers. Listening effectively, believing one's story as well as helping see one's strengths were listed as most helpful. Recommended for professionals and academics.

 29. Harris, M. (1998). Trauma, Recovery and Empowerment. Toronto: The Free Press.

A 'how-to' book for clinicians working with women in groups who have experienced many types of abuse: emotional, psychological, physical and institutional. Approaches group work from a feminist perspective by using mythology, metaphor and traditional methods such as healing circles. Assists in empowerment strategizing including building strengths to address impediments to building healthy relationships. All areas build on self esteem, while others look at female sexuality, setting limits, asking for what you want, physical boundaries and what it means to be a woman. Recommended for professionals.

30. Henderson, A.J.Z., Bartholomew, K. and Dutton, D.G. (1997). He loves me; He loves me not: Attachment and separation resolution of abused women. Journal of Family Violence, 12(2): 169-191.

Article focuses on attachment patterns associated with returning to abusive relationships. Shortly after leaving abusive relationships, sixty-three abused women were assessed. The assessment determined their overall separation resolution. Negative self esteem and patterns of preoccupation attachment were present in 88% of the sample. Other areas examined included emotional involvement with partner after separation, frequency of previous separations as risk factors in successful separation resolution. Recommended for professionals and academics.

31. Hoffman, P. (1984). Psychological abuse of women by spouses and live-in lovers. Women and Therapy, 3(1): 37-47.

This article offers a definition of how psychological abuse impacts on women's lives.The study focuses on twenty-five respondents' taped interviews and explores four common areas of concern: sexual interaction, care of children, financial management, and social interaction. A diagnostic checklist in included to measure levels of abuse and results are also discussed. Recommended for general public, professionals and academics.

 32. Hotaling, G.T., Sugarman, D.B. (1990). A risk marker analysis of assaulted wives. Journal of Family Violence, 5(1): 1-13.

Focus of article is on risk factors, measures and propensity for men to abuse, both physically and psychologically, their female partners. Compares relationships where there is less to more physical aggression by male partners. Uses the information of the six hundred and ninety-nine female respondents to the National Family Violence Survey. Discusses what factors put women at risk in violent, compared to nonviolent, relationships. Recommended for professionals and academics.

33. Hyden, M. (1995). Verbal aggression as prehistory of woman battering. Journal of Family Violence, 10(1): 55-71.

Article looks at interrelationship between verbal aggression and physical assault from materials drawn from interviews of men and women living in relationships where the woman is battered repeatedly. Questions of personal responsibility of men who abuse are diminished when wife battering is exclusively located in a structural context. This article examines what a man wants to achieve with his violence, and recounts what happens when both parties provide information for analysis of the acts of verbal and physical violence.The concept of verbal abuse 'communicating worthlessness' is examined. Swedish publication. Recommended for professionals and academics.

34. Jacko, M. (1995). Handbook for First Nations Women: Domestic Abuse, Legal Rights and Avenues to Services and Resources. Toronto: Native Women's Resource Centre of Toronto and Native Child and Family Services of Toronto.

Handbook gives definitions of abuse. Myths are explored as well as women's common experiences and feelings. Booklet also outlines coping responses, both positive and negative, and explores the legal issues and remedies, both civil and criminal. The potential effects on children are explained and why it is important to take protective action. Abuse in Two-Spirited or Lesbian relationships is explored. Recommended for general public and professionals.

35. Jacobson, N.S. and Gottman, J.M. (1998). Anatomy of a violent relationship. Psychology Today, 31(2): 62-71.

Article is based on an eight year study of domestically violent couples. Video taping is used to evaluate the fights and monitors the vital signs of abusers. Also shows the role of emotional abuse in violent relationships and demonstrates the unpredictability of batterers. Issues of power and control are discussed as well as a program for batterers. This article emphasizes women's strengths. Recommended for general public, professionals and academics.

36. Kerouac, S., Taggart, M.E., Lescop, J. and Fortin, M.F. (1986). Dimensions of health in violent families. Health Care for Women International, 7: 413-426.

Article focuses on comprehensive health care for abused women and their children.Study was undertaken at a shelter where one hundred and thirty women were asked to respond to a questionnaire. Results indicated that symptoms of depression and anxiety in the women also matched some similar issues with their children, who had witnessed both physical and emotional abuse. Outcomes are put into the context of social, biological and psychological issues. Recommended for professionals and academics.

 37. Langlois, L., Larochelle, M., Lemieux, D., and Racine, N. (1995). Intervening with Deaf Women Who are Victims of Spousal Violence. Charlesbourg, Quebec: Comite d'aide aux femmes Sourdes de Quebec (CAFSQ).

Report outlines the definition of deafness and the deprivation experienced by many Deaf women because of their deafness. Points out that Deaf women who are abused are doubly isolated and deprived. The social service network lacks intervenors that can deal with both issues adequately. The manual assists in understanding the issues of abused Deaf women and offers suggestions for inclusion. This is an extensive document with a broad base of information. Recommended for professionals, general public and academics.

38. Lawson, G. (1995). Violence against people with a disability and the counselling and healing process. Entourage, 9(1): 11-13.

Article outlines violence in several forms, i.e. physical, neglect and diminishment. Author states that violence is also present in the form of a community not equitably sharing its resources with all members of the community. He points out that racism, sexism and other "isms" related to difference is also violent. Citizens suffer from all forms of violence in the forms of the physical, neglect, diminishment and these may be intimate and systemic, private or public. Being dependent on others for care puts people with disabilities in further jeopardy. Practising in a way that upholds personal dignity is encouraged in the counselling and healing process. Recommended for professionals.

39. Lecovin, K. E. and Penfold, P. S. (1996). The emotionally abused woman: An existential-phenomenological exploration. Canadian Journal of Community Health, 15(1): 30-47.

Study was done with six emotionally abused women as co-researchers. The meaning and role of advocacy with emotionally abused women is examined. The contexts of advocacy include the legal, social, cultural, psychological, familial, economic and physical.Article reinforces other literature by stipulating that emotional abuse takes place in almost all physically abusive relationships. Difficulty of creating a definitive meaning of the term 'emotional abuse' is discussed and this lack of precise definition may contribute to its trivialization. Recommended for professionals and academics.

40. Levy, B. and Giggans, P. (1995). What Parents Need to Know About Dating Violence. Seattle, WA: Seal Press.

Book outlines what dating violence is and alerts parents to its warning signs. Emotional,sexual and physical abuse work in concert and are seen as having the same basis of wanting to control one's partner. Text indicates that dating violence takes place in both large cities and small towns, by both heterosexual and homosexual youth, by all social classes and ethnic groups. The complications of social and psychological factors contribute to violence in dating relationships and the dynamics that keep the young woman in the situation. Guidelines are provided for taking action to intervene effectively. Recommended for general public and professionals.

41. Loring, Marti Tamm, (1994). Emotional Abuse. NY: MacMillan.

Book offers a broad definition of emotional abuse and social inequality. Both overt and covert emotional abuse strategies are examined in detail. The wider social context is an important piece, as author examines how abusers' rules resemble unfair rules enforced in families, institutions, and cultures where inequality of gender, age, division of labour and private property persist. Parallels are drawn between victims of torture and emotionally abused women. The diagnosis of trauma connected to emotional abuse is outlined and includes flashbacks, intrusive imagery, flooding and nightmares. Issues concerning ritualistic abuse, traumatic bonding, dynamics of victim/perpetrator, and psychogenic amnesia areexamined. Theoretical perspectives are evaluated for their efficacy in treating abuse and new models of therapy are discussed as well as their results. Recommended for general public, professionals and academics.

42. Loring, Marti Tamm, (1994). Lesbians and emotional abuse. Emotional Abuse. NY: MacMillan

Epilogue of this book offers a brief discussion of the homophobia and misogynist world where lesbian abuse takes place. External, as well as internal, homophobia are outlined to reflect issues of internalized oppression and low self esteem. Lack of relational validation and its isolating outcomes are also examined along with being an unmarried female in our society. Examples of emotional abuse range from extreme criticism and constant degradation to monopolization of perceptions.Recommended for general public, professionals and academics.

43. Loring, Marti Tamm, (1997). Stories from the Heart: Case Studies of Emotional Abuse.Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers.

Author provides five comprehensive studies of emotional abuse of women, including elder abuse and one study of emotional abuse of a child. Considerable description of behaviour of abuser is included, such as: name calling, belittling, interfering with medical needs, financial manipulation and ongoing degradation. These also include covert behaviours, i.e. disguised and beyond awareness of victim: discounting, withholding affection, denial, projection, subtle conveyance of the lack of importance of victim. The continuous and unrelenting pattern of emotional abuse is described, interspersed with warmth and kindness to create  an 'in and out' of bonding 'crazy-making' feelings in the victim. A section on therapeutic modalities is included. Recommended for general public and professionals.

44. Marshall, L.L. (1992). Development of the severity of violence against women scales. Journal of Family Violence, 7(2): 103-121.

Article focuses on the need for measures and scales that can be applied to the evaluation of male violence against women. Two different types of the Severity of Violence Against Women Scales (SVAWS) were developed. One ten point scale which captures responses of seven hundred and seven college women regarding seriousness, aggressiveness, abusiveness and threats of forty-six acts carried out by men are examined. Recommended for academics.

 45. Marshall, L.L. (1996). Psychological abuse of women: Six distinct clusters. Journal of Family Violence, 11(4): 379-409.

Study was designed to identify patterns of psychological abuse and determine whether different patterns mediate the effects of violence and sexual aggression. Clusters include variables such as denigration, isolation, enforced secrecy, several types of control which include financial and criticism and whether different combinations contribute to women's level of health. Author reasons for studying psychological abuse are stated and include concerns of treatment programs addressing physical abuse and that psychological abuse may continue after treatment. Uses Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1979). Recommended for professionals and academics.

46. McTimoney, D. (1993). A Resource Guide on Family Violence Issue for Aboriginal Communities. Ottawa: Health Canada and the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. Included in this guide are Aboriginal prayers, voices of native women and definitions of family violence. Common questions and answers are also provided to the reader. The principles of "Frameworking: A Spiritual Model of Recovery" are explained in terms of integration of the self and community. Information on combatting family violence from the perspective of the abused and abuser, the family, the children's learning, what elders can do and what service providers and communities can do. Recommended for general public and professionals.

47. Merkin, L. (1995). A community based model providing services for Deaf and Deaf-Blind victims of sexual assault and domestic violence. Sexuality and Disability, 13(2): 97-106.

Article highlights the lack of services for members of the Deaf and Deaf-Blind community.Author states that there is a lack of understanding about Deaf and Deaf-Blind culture and in fact indicates that it is pathologized. Principles of empowerment are explored and the background and philosophy of the only known service for this group in North America called the Abused Deaf Women's Advocacy Service (ADWAS). Recommended for general public and professionals.

48. Merritt-Gray, M. And Wuest, J. (1995). Counteracting abuse and breaking free: The process of leaving revealed through women's voices. Health Care for Women International, 16: 399-412.

Rural women share their stories of re-claiming the self and countering abuse through reframing the process of leaving the relationship. Thus, we are afforded a glimpse into 'breaking free'. Societal infrastructures to support women leaving are outlined. Article reinforces the strength of abused women as survivors and uses a feminist perspective. Recommended for general public, professionals and academics.

49. Miller, M.S. (1995). No Visible Wounds: Identifying Non-Physical Abuse of Women by Their Men. New York: Fawcett Columbine.

Book offers comprehensive definitions of non-physical abuse including the escalation of emotional abuse after the abuser retires from employment. Immigrant women are identified as very vulnerable and have the threat of the partner contacting immigration if perpetrator is sponsoring her. Brainwashing is explained and takes the form of isolation, banning family contact or not allowing the woman to work or study outside the home, and locking her in or out of the home. There is also a section on physical abuse and the social structures that support patriarchy and all forms of abuse. Included in the book is a profile of an abuser and author states that common denominators of abusers are personal, social and psychological, not demographic. Ramifications of leaving or staying in an abusive relationship are examined and treatment modalities suggested. Recommended for general public, professionals and academics.

50. The National Clearinghouse on Family Violence. (1990). ElderAbuse. Health and Welfare, Canada.

Report outlines definitions of the physical, psychosocial, financial and neglect dimensions of elder abuse. Statistics assist in informing about its prevalence in our society and its impact on the individual. Facts to consider include profiles of the abused as well as abuser and how to detect abuse in all its forms. Support services and prevention are also explored. Recommended for general public.

51. The National Clearinghouse on Family Violence. (1994). Emotional Abuse. Health and Welfare, Canada.

Report indicates that emotional abuse stems from the male partner's need for power and control. Behaviours exhibited include rejecting, degrading, terrorizing, isolating, corrupting/exploiting and denying emotional responsiveness to his partner. All of the above are defined in the report. Article indicates that it is difficult to measure how widespread emotional abuse is as recognition has been recent. Also there is no consistent definition and it is difficult to detect as cases go unreported. In the statistics, 39% of women reported being verbally or emotionally abused during the last five years. (StatsCan. VAW Survey, 1993) Recommended for general public and professionals.

52. The National Clearinghouse on Family Violence. (1993). Family Violence and People with a Mental Handicap. Health and Welfare, Canada.

Report outlines statistics, definitions, and facts about how people with a mental handicap live. Issues relating to employment, housing, poverty, lack of respect and their social position, as well as myths are included. Despite changing attitudes, people with mental handicaps continue to be vulnerable to various forms of abuse. Hesitation to report and fear of not being believed puts them at further risk. Included in the forms of abuse are emotional and verbal, neglect, assault and mistreatment. Impacts of abuse include lack of decision-making power, low self-esteem, effects of segregation and other issues. Recommended for general public and professionals.

53. The National Clearinghouse on Family Violence. (1993). Family Violence Against Women with Disabilities . Health and Welfare, Canada.

Report offers definitions of violence in its various forms. Higher number of caregivers is cited as increasing women with disabilities' chances of being abused. Her dependency leaves her vulnerable to being seen as lacking intelligence, being punished for being assertive, inappropriate forms of touching, and not being seen as credible when reporting abuse. Abuse can also result in further disability such as loss of vision and mobility when shaken. All forms of abuse leave the woman psychologically scarred from which a victim may never recover. Recommended for general public and professionals.

54. The National Clearinghouse on Family Violence. (1993). Financial Abuse of Seniors. Health and Welfare, Canada.

Report focuses on the misuse of a senior's money, property or other assets by a close relative or person in a position of trust, including a spouse. The widespread nature of this problem is examined as its detection is sometimes difficult.This form of abuse has been reported most often and accounts for 50% of the documented elder abuse cases. Disclosure may be difficult due to guilt or shame or not knowing one's rights. The plight of older immigrants and refugees is examined regarding their rights and knowledge. Intervention, supports and prevention are examined, as well as advice to service providers. Recommended for general public and professionals.

55. Nicaragua and Laws Against Emotional Abuse. Law #230.

The pamphlet outlines the fact that Nicaragua is the only country that recognizes emotional abuse as a crime and that women must be provided with security and protective measures. The pamphlet gives an overview of what constitutes psychological abuse and the damage it does to its victims. It also outlines how a woman can charge the abuser and what help she should seek in doing so, which is labelled "denouncing psychological damage". Perpetrators, if found guilty, are subject to legal sanctions. Recommended for general public and academics.

56. NiCarthy, G. (1982). Emotional abuse. In Getting Free. Seattle: WA: Seal Press: 285-304.

Book chapter focuses on personal life dilemmas such as terror, inability to act independently due to erosion of self esteem. Issues of control, manipulation by perpetrator and self-blame as examined. Biderman's Chart of Coercion is included as well as questionnaires to measure levels of abuse. Recommended for general public and professionals.

57. O'Hearn, R.E. and Davis, K.E. (1997). Women's experience of giving and receiving emotional abuse: An attachment perspective. Journal of Interpersonal Violence,12(3): 375-392.

Article examines emotional abuse and four hundred and twenty-seven college students in intimate relationships from a perspective of various forms of attachment and fearfulness. Intergenerational considerations are included, examples being parenting received and quality of attachments in later life. Study included African Americans (19.7%), Caucasian (75.4%) and remaining respondents were Asian, Hispanic or Native American (N = 21). Survey instruments included Relationship Questionnaire and Abuse Checklist. Recommended for professionals and academics.

 58. O'Leary, D.K. and Journiles, E.N. (1999). Psychological abuse between adult partners: prevalence and impact on partners and children. In L. L'Abate et al (Eds.) Handbook of Developmental Family Psychology and Psychopathology, New York: John Wiley and Sons. p. 333-349.

Article studies two hundred and seventy-two young married couples' path to physical aggression in a thirty month time span. Article looks at premarriage variables such as personality (impulsivity, aggression and defensiveness), violence in family of origin and physical aggression against peers and parents. The dimensions of psychological abuse and the effects compare couples who are in discordant but nonphysically abusive relationships and those who are in discordant and physically abusive relationships. Focus of the study is on verbal/emotional abuse. Recommended for professionals and academics.

59. O'Leary, J. (1995). A house defiant: Ten years of confronting violence and abuse against women who have disabilities. Rehabilitation Digest. October. 5-23.

Article focuses on the lobbying of women with disabilities and their allies in forming DAWN (DisAbled Women's Network) in 1985. Issues such as transportation, access to supports and shelters that can provide for the needs of women with disabilities are discussed. Issues highlighted that 'abled' people would not be aware of are discussed, i.e. being left on the toilet for an inordinate amount of time by a caregiver; or being put in diapers for the convenience of others; being force-fed and being denied any sex education. Proving the problem and taking action are outlined as well as targeting abusive caregivers. Recommended for general public and professionals.

60. Ostrowski, C. J. (1996). The Clothesline Project: Women's stories of gender-related violence. Women and Language, 19(1): 37-42.

This project was set up in the promenade of the Empire State Building Grand Concourse line in Albany, N.Y. It was composed of t-shirts that offered the viewer a glimpse of abused women and their experience. On the t-shirts were both printed word and visual images painted directly onto the shirts by women and children who had experience trauma due to abuse. Gender-related violence perpetrated on the victims included rape, wife battering, emotional abuse and sexual harassment. The women stated that they felt strongly that the public should be made aware of the suffering that is going on in all communities.Recommended for general public and professionals.

61. Papp, A. (1990). Report on Abused South Asian Women In Scarborough. Toronto:South Asian Family Support Services.

This report uncovers physical and psychological abuse of women in the South Asian community living in Scarborough, Ontario, Canada. The term South Asian is used for people who come from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and people of South Asian descent from other parts of the world. The goals of the study were to gather information about the needs of this population in regards to woman abuse, adjustment, isolation and supports, as well as documenting barriers to existing services.Also discussed are changes in abuse patterns due to immigration. Elder abuse is examined in the report, as well as dowry blackmail. All systems are examined within the context of patriarchal structures of the cultures. Recommended for general public, professionals and academics.

 

62. Parker, B. (1996). Responses to: Predicting unpredictability: A model of women's processes of predicting battering men's violence. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice: An International Journal, 10(4): 387-390.

Article focuses on how women try to control their violent environment and to placate the abuser as a survival strategy. Examples included weight gain as a cushion or wearing multiple layers of clothing as protection. Drugs/alcohol consumed by the abuser interrupts in the prediction capacity of the environment. Pregnancy and the escalation of violence as well as risks of poverty when a woman leaves are outlined. Warning signs and reconstructing narratives of the violence are also examined.Recommended for general public, professionals and academics.

63. Pilowsky, J. E. (1993). The courage to leave: An exploration of Spanish-speaking women victims of spousal abuse. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 12(2): 15-29.

Article focuses on eight Spanish-speaking women from Central and South America who had left their abusive male partners within a period of one to three years past.The women were both physically and emotionally abused. The article gives an overview of issues regarding immobilization experienced by the women prior to leaving and includes four distinct phases: denial, socialization, ignorance and social isolation. Explores concept of the 'turning point' which the women described as the time when they knew they were no longer honoured as wives and mothers, as well as developing increased concern for their children's well-being. Recommended for general public, professionals and academics.

64. Porterfield, K. M. (1992). What's a nice feminist like you doing in a relationship like this? Broomstick, Autumn (#4)

Article is a testimonial of an emotionally abused woman. It includes examples such as threats, verbal abuse, name-calling, withholding of affection, isolation and destruction of property. Profile of abuser is mentioned as well as women's economic and social status in society. Recommended for general public.

65. Rathus, J. H. and O'Leary, K. D. (1997). Spouse-specific dependency scale: Scale development. Journal of Family Violence, 12(2): 159-168.

Article examines emotional dependency in primary relationships among college-aged students. Emphasis is given to areas concerning anxious attachment, exclusive dependency, emotional dependency for both young women and men. The relationship between self esteem, identity and general functioning as they relate to emotional dependency is examined. The clinical implications are discussed and suggestions for further research are mentioned. Several scales are used to develop a questionnaire and it is included in the article. Recommended for professionals and academics.

66. Ridington, J. (1989). Beating the Odds: Violence and Women with Disabilities. Toronto: DisAbled Women's Network (DAWN) Canada.

This paper outlines statistics and definitions of abuse of girls and women with disabilities. Attention is paid to issues of multiple disabilities and disabilities caused by abuse. The rigours of reporting are examined and attention is paid to the difficult of this action in courts and other arenas. Services for abused women are critiqued for their inadequacy. Recommended for professionals.

67. Rioux, M.H. and Ticoll, M. Project Directors. (1994). Harm's Way: The Many Faces of Violence and Abuse Against Persons with Disabilities. Toronto:Roeher Institute.

Book outlines traditional approaches to the issue, precipitating factors and demographics of risk. Definitions of abuse abound as well as precise and thorough insights into the definitions. The disclosure and identification process is explained clearly and the author gives an overview of the responses in various sectors or sites, such as the family, service sector, criminal justice system and the government policy responses. Legislative framework and case law are included. Recommended for professionals.

68. Rodenberg, F.A. (1993). The measure of wife abuse: Steps towards the development of a comprehensive assessment technique. Journal of Family Violence, 8(3): 203-227.

Article focuses on measures of and empirical research on woman abuse. Measures attempt to assess a comprehensive range of behaviours. Author states that many measures do not include emotional abuse or sexual abuse as categories. Input from advocates of abused women were included to assist in the categorization and were asked to define four categories: physical, sexual, psychological and verbal. Following this, 15 items/categories were included in the assessment materials. Recommended for academics and professionals.

69. Ryan, K. M. (1995). Do courtship-violent men have characteristics associated with a battering personality? Journal of Family Violence, 10(1): 99-120.

Article focuses on 'low-level' courtship violence and whether it can measure tendencies towards woman abuse later in life. Three studies were conducted to explore signs of battering personalities in college men who had been violent in dating relationships. In the studies, measures were used to ascertain general aggression, attitudes towards women and sexual aggression. Threats and verbal abuse were the most predictive signs of courtship violence. Recommended for academics.

70. Rybarik, M.F., Dosch, M.F., Gilmore, G.D., and Krajewski, S.S. (1995). Violence in relationships: A seventh grade inventory of knowledge and attitudes. Journal of Family Violence, 10(2): 223-251.

Authors state that their intent is to contribute to the body of knowledge used by advocates, schools and researchers by developing a valid and reliable inventory to evaluate education regarding interventions regarding violence in relationships. Article is focused mainly on measures. Recommended for academics.

71. Shepard, M.F. and Campbell, J.A. (1992). The abusive behaviour inventory: A measure of psychological and physical abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7(3): 291-305.

Article focuses on abusive behaviours that do not involve physical force. Measures and their validity are examined. The Abusive Behaviour Inventory (ABI) is drawn from feminist theory and addresses a range of abusive behaviours. Samples of one hundred women and seventy-eight men are divided into abuser/abused and nonabuser/nonabused. Measures were evaluated for the types of validity: criterion-related, construct and factorial. Recommended for academics.

72. Silman, Janet. (1987). Aboriginal Women Speak Out. Toronto: Women's Press.

A collection of stories collected by J. Silman but told by a variety of women who have experienced abuse as First Nations women. Issues pertaining to colonialism, and resultant racism and sexism are explored as well. Recommended for general public and professionals.

73. Sinclair, D. (1985). Understanding Wife Assault. Toronto: Ontario Government Publication.

Although this book focuses on physical abuse, there are a number of areas that can assist in understanding the emotional dynamics of assault. The book also has sections on treatment modalities for abused women, the abusive men and for children who witness abuse. The recognition of the historical dynamics are included as well as examples of protective action and useful resources. Recommended for general public, professionals and academics.

74. Sobsey, D. (1995). Violence against people with mental disabilities: Is there any hope? Connections, Spring/Summer: 4-6.

Article gives an historical perspective regarding the frequency and occurrence of abuse in disabled children and adults. Issues of institutionalization and mercy killing are briefly mentioned as well. The reasons why abuse occurs are also deconstructed along with the myths and victim blaming that abound in society. The four elements of stress, support, families and and community inclusion are examined as to their interaction. Recommended for general public and professionals.

75. Steering Committee on the Abuse of Adults in Vulnerable Circumstances, Report andRecommendations. (Draft) (1995). Province of Saskatchewan

Article outlines why abuse occurs and assists in dispelling myths of 'victim-blaming'and indicate family unity as a stress reducer. Some types of disabilities are outlined as producing more stress than others. Poor communication abilities may also be a factor in a woman not being able to communicate about her abuse. Recommended for general public and professionals.

76. Stout, M. D. (1996). Family Violence in Aboriginal Communities: The Missing Peace. Ottawa: Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. This report documents the hearings on family violence gathered across Canada. Groups polled stated that of all the social problems in their communities, few are asdebilitating as family violence. Stories come from First Nations, Metis, and Inuit peoples alike and their families bear the brunt of the unredeemed past and present. Being under cultural and economic siege has crippled them and hindered their renewal. Recommended for general public, professionals and academics.

77. Tang, C.S. (1998). Psychological abuse of Chinese wives. Journal of Family Violence, 13(3): 299-314.

Article focuses on an understanding of psychological wife abuse in Chinese families by exploring foundations of Confucian tradition and its patriarchal belief system. It is suggested that this places women in vulnerable and submissive position in Chinese society. The article also proposes generalizing the Index of Spousal Abuse Scale (ISA) to the Chinese population using Chinese college students. Two studies are presented differentiating between those who are victims and those who are not. Importance of international measures to support international solving of this problem are also mentioned. Recommended for professionals and academics.

 78. Ticoll, M. (1994). Violence and People with Disabilities: A Review of the Literature. Toronto: Roeher Institute.

A comprehensive literature review including information about the extent of the problem, where the violence occurs, factors contributing to violence, effects of violence and abuse disclosure, patterns of responding, and prevention. Recommended for general public, professionals and academics.

79. Tolman, R.M. (1992). Psychological abuse of women. InJ.C. Campbell, (Ed.) Assessing the Risk of Dangerousness. Newbury, CA: Sage Publishers. p. 291-309.

Chapter attempts to define the problem of psychological abuse and to demonstrate positive approaches to use in aiding clinical assessment. Also, some barriers to effective assessment are identified as well as suggestions for addressing these barriers.Issues of male privilege and rigid sex roles are introduced as possible contributing factors to psychological abuse. Legal issues are briefly examined. Recommended for professionals and academics.

80. Tomlinson, D., Husain, N. and St. Maurice, L. (1995). Creating community frameworks for family violence prevention among citizens who have a disability. Entourage, 9(1): 8-10.

Types of abuse outlined include stealing of disabled person possessions, yelling, hitting,and rape. Subtle forms of abuse listed include forcing the person to stay in her room, giving someone too much medication or tying them down. The confiscation of technical aids, using someone for work without pay, forcing someone to wear unflattering clothing against their will or not giving information that can facilitate a good decision.The authors are workers at the Independent Living Resource of Calgary, Centre for Independent Living, Toronto, and Centre-Resources pour la vie autonome du Bas St-Laurent. Recommended for general public and professionals.

81. Tutty, L.M., Bidgood, B.A., Rothery, M.A. (1993). Support groups for battered women:Research on their efficacy. Journal of Family Violence, 8(4): 325-343.

Article evaluates twelve support groups consisting of seventy-six women, and focuses on loci of control, marital functioning, perceived stress, self esteem, belonging support. Respondents both away from and living with partners. Characteristics of battered women are included as well as the program model, methodology and follow-up retention of client gains. Client satisfaction is also measured and recommendations are included. Recommended for professionals and academics.

82. Current Issues: Teen RelationshipsAbuse. (1999). (Web Page: www.dvsheltertour.org/teen.html) NY.

Very contemporary article about teen relationship abuse in its various forms, including physical and emotional abuse. Statistics on youth murder following reports of abuse are outlined. Controlling behaviour of the abuser resembles that of adults and the results are similar. However, issues of the development and individuation process of teens is highlighted. Recommended for general public and professionals.

 83. Wingood, G. and DiClemente, R. (1997). The effects of an abusive primary partner on the condom use and sexual negotiation practices of African-American women. American Journal of Public Health, 87: 1016-1018.

Article reflects this understudied area of woman abuse, namely the association between woman abuse and HIV risk. Focused specifically on African-American women having a physically abusive primary partner. The authors investigate the effect of sexual and emotional abuse, as well as physical abuse, on women's HIV risk. Findings show correlations between abuse and risks of contracting HIV. Recommended for general public, professionals and academics.

84. Yoshihama, M. and Sorenson, S. (1994). Physical, sexual and emotional abuse by male intimates: Experiences of women in Japan. Violence and Victims, 9(1): 63-77.

Article focuses on the nature of violence perpetrated by men towards their partners and includes physical, sexual and emotional dimensions, and places the issue in cultural and legal contexts in Japan. Emotional aspects of abuse include noncompliance with contraception by males to constant demeaning, ridiculing behaviours, and verbal abuse. The physical abuse behaviours listed includes forced and violent sex to assault with a deadly weapon. Information was collected by questionnaire from seven hundred and ninety-six women with an average age of 43.5 years. There are no specific laws in Japan addressing the issue of woman abuse. Recommended for professionals and academics.